Dilemma Dice and Coins
Dice and coins are random devices; this introduces uncertainty into the play. Reciprocity needs a “noise filter”, or “forgiveness factor”, to work in an uncertain social environment. To create dilemma games with randomizers, you need the players to have control over each other’s odds. If each player can put the other player’s expected outcome high or low, then putting it high is a nice act, and putting it low is a mean act.
Thus, with dice; each player rolls one die, and each player calls out the goal the other must meet. Setting a low goal (like 1) is nice, setting a high goal (like 6) is mean. If both players make the other’s call, then truce; if neither, then draw; if only one, then win/lose.
Similarly with coins: each player flips a coin twice, and each player calls out “head” or “tail” or (two) “heads” or “tails”. The first two calls are nice (probability 3/4), the second two calls are mean (probability 1/4).
flips head? tail? heads? tails?
HH Y N Y N
HT Y Y N N
TH Y Y N N
TT N Y N Y
If both make the other’s call, then truce; etc.
In each of these games, the player roll or flip for several rounds, then sum scores and compare with goal.